How Volcanoes Work

There are different natural disasters that take place time after time Some of these are hurricanes and earthquakes, which appear to be very devastating natural disasters. However, volcanoes may have a wider-ranging impact compared to them.

A Volcanoes happens to be a rupture on a planetary mass object’s crust, which make it possible for hot lava, gasses, and volcanic ash to leak from the magma chamber underneath the surface.

How Volcanoes WorkPlate Tectonics- The volcanoes of the earth have quite an amazing science behind them. They happen because the crust of the earth is broken into seventeen key, rigid tectonic plates, which float on some hotter, softer layer within the earth’s mantle. Consequently, volcanoes on earth occur mainly where the tectonic plates are converging or diverging. For instance, volcanoes at the pacific ring of fire happen due to convergent tectonic plates that are coming together. Volcanoes at a mid-oceanic ridge, for instance, the Mid-Atlantic ridge occur due to divergent tectonic plates that are pulling together.

Hot spots- They can as well form where there is thinning and stretching of the interior plates of the crust. Good examples include the Wells Gray-Clearwater volcanic field, the E. African Rift, and the North America’s Rio Grande Rift. This is a type of volcanism categorized under plate hypothesis volcanism. Volcanism far from plate borders has as well been described as mantle plumes. Hot spots like Hawaii are assumed to rise from outpouring diapirs with magma, from the core-mantle edge, three thousand kilometers deep within the earth. Note that volcanoes are not usually created where 2 tectonic plates slide past each other.

Dangers of Volcanoes

There are various volcanic eruption types such as phreatic eruptions, high silica lava explosive eruptions, low-silica lava effusive eruption, and carbon dioxide emission among others. Such activities pose hazards to humans. In addition, hot springs, earthquakes, mud pots, fumaroles, and geysers, mostly accompany volcanoes.

Erupting volcanoes may pose various dangers even outside the immediate eruption vicinity. Volcanic ash may be a threat to aircraft, particularly those with jet engines. Here, high operating temperatures melt ash particles, which follow the urban blades altering their shape, disrupting their operation. Huge eruptions may affect temperatures as sulfuric acid’s droplets and ash obscure the sun and cool the lower atmosphere of the earth (the troposphere). On the other hand, they as well absorb the earth’s up radiated heat warming its upper atmosphere (stratosphere). Volcanic winters are known to cause catastrophic famines.


Curious about the types of volcanoes

Volcanoes are huge conical mountains that explode and spew out the masses of lava all over causing a massive destruction of living and nonliving environment. People are really curious about the types of this disastrous natural event. In terms of activity, volcanoes can be divided into basic 3 categories.

1) Still active volcano: This one is still erupting out the hot lava from the huge crater.

2) Dormant volcano: This is temporarily inactive but not fully extinct

3) Extinct volcano: It is never likely to erupt again. Besides this general classification, there are further four types of volcanoes according to the shape and formation.

They are briefly described below.

Cinder Cones:

These are the simplest type of volcanoes formed by the eruption of thin, runny lava. The gas-charged lava is violently blown into the air and it breaks into fragments and solidifies causing cinder to fall around vent forming an oval or a circular cone. They have craters of a bowl shape and rise up to 1 thousand feet or above their surrounding. Eruptions tend to be frequent but relatively gentle. The numerous cinder cones are found at western north America.

Composite Volcanoes or Stator-Volcanoes:

These are steep-sided, symmetrical cones. They rise above eight thousand feet from their surroundings. They are generally formed from alternating layers of larva flow, volcanic ash, and cinder. An essential component of composite volcanoes is the conduit system through which the magma from the innermost part of the earth comes to the surface. Most of the beautiful mountains in the world like Mt. Fuji in Japan, Mt. Shasta in California, Mt. Rainier in Washington and many other are composite volcanoes.

Shield Volcanoes:

They are almost formed by the slow accretion of highly fluid lava called Basalt Lava. The flow of lava when cools it builds a broad, gentle slope cone of flat and dome shape. Lave erupts from vents along flanks of the cone. Some of the largest volcanoes like Mauna loa volcano in Hawaii, are shield volcano. This volcano projects 13,677 feet above sea level.

Lava Domes:

They are formed by small, viscous flow of lava that cools and piles up. They expand within and grows larger. They occur within crater or on flanks of large composite volcanoes. Mont Pelee in Martinique, Mono dome in California are examples of lava domes. Hence according to the term of activity, there are 3 and as per the shape and formation, there are 4 types of volcanoes in the world.

Have Wooden Windows Changed over the last 50 years, if so How?

Nothing compares with the beauty and design of windows handcrafted from timber. They add a traditional touch and bespoke feel to any home improvement project. In British architectural history, timber windows have been at the forefront of every home design. But window designs have changed incredibly over the last 50 years. In this post, we shall discuss these changes and how they have led to the modern timber windows we have today.

Traditional Wooden Window Designs

We can’t talk about wooden windows without mentioning sash windows. Their popularity spans centuries and such was their design’s success. Besides, they featured widely in Victorian, Georgian, and Edwardian window designs. Sash windows are typically single glazed and their design based on Yorkshire light windows. These windows opened horizontally, and this design even features in some homes today.

Finding the proper glass for traditional timber windows was more challenging than manufacturing the wooden frames, usually made from oak. This challenge forced contractors to use smaller sections of glass to design the windows, supported by panes. The traditional Sash windows featured smaller glass panes, with six on both the top and bottom.

However, as glass availability increased for larger window sections, there was a change in the appearance of wooden sash windows. Consequently, this led to the use of fewer panes as well as improved quality in glass used. With the increased focus on well-lit homes, sash windows became larger in dimensions, stretching to a room’s height. The timber frame now featured the horns’ to add extra support.

The Switch to Modern Timber Windows

Throughout the century, housing designs have taken different designs. Wooden-framed windows have become a popular choice for designing traditional-themed homes throughout the UK. Most contractors prefer timber because of its elegant design, and it’s reminiscent of the Georgian, Edwardian and Victorian eras. Natural wood is attractive and durable with builders finding it easy to personalise in different ways. Besides, you can use different paints or stains to match the current décor in homes.

Change in Designs and Patterns

For most people, the aesthetics associated with wood is the primary factor affecting their choice for timber windows. The natural properties of timber provide a unique, stunning and elegant design, a reason why some people try to mimic timber properties. But why should you settle for a cheap imitation when you can design your windows with natural and modern timber-framed windows? There are different types of natural wood used to create modern wooden windows.

For instance, dark timber helps create bolder, formal and classic looking windows, while lighter timber achieves stylish and casual window designs. Thus, every type of natural wood has a unique grain that offers different designs and patterns. Modern interiors rhyme well with light grain patterns that run across the wood while traditional interiors can use a darker wooden grain for a homely feel.

Changes in Window Regulations

The Building Regulations in the UK have also changed the installation of modern wooden windows compared to the traditional ones. They must comply with the set building regulations and standards in various ways, including:

Fire Safety – this regulation is the most recent and affects the installation of windows. Wooden window designs must allow for emergency escape in case of a fire in habitable rooms. They must at least be 450mm high/wide to allow for emergency fire exit, an attribute that was absent in traditional windows. For modern timber windows in the UK, we recommend that you hire this company, with decades of experience in the world of timber frames windows.

Ventilation – this regulation is of crucial importance and has changed the design of modern timber windows in the UK. It defines purge ventilation as well as background ventilation. Today’s window designs should have proper purge ventilation which enhances the overall open space ventilation in the home.

Fuel and Power Conservation – this regulation also affects the use of wooden windows in homes. Traditional wooden windows were mainly single glazed. However, modern wooden windows feature double or triple glazed units. These units assist in conserving fuel and power in contemporary homes.

Quality of Timber and Paint – the law requires the use of high-quality timber to provide safety to any home. High-quality timber used to design the windows helps prevent unauthorised entry to the house. Besides, the type of paint used must not be hazardous during the contractors and home inhabitants. There is a significant improvement in the quality of timber and colour used in wooden windows today.

With increased advancement in technology and building industry, designs of wooden windows are changing and becoming more exciting. Legislations have also affected wooden window designs, allowing for improved safety, ventilation, fuel conservation and quality of timber used. Most features found in wooden windows today were only a dream in traditional windows.